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Khawaja Ghulam Farid


Tomb of Khawaja Ghulam Farid

Spiritual Poet

Born 1845 A.D.
Chachran Sharif, Punjab
Died 1901 A.D.
Chachran Sharif, Punjab
Honored in Islam
Influences Prophets of Islam, Baba Farid
Influenced Countless Pakistani Sufi poets
Tradition/Genre Kafi

Hazrat Khawaja Ghulam Farid (Urdu, Saraiki(Seraiki script, Punjabi(Shahmukhi):حضرت خواجہ غُلام فرید, (Gurmukhi): ਹਜ਼ਰਤ ਖ਼੍ਵਾਜਾ ਗ਼ੁਲਾਮ ਫ਼ਰੀਦ, Hindi(Devanagari): हज़रत ख़्वाजा ग़ुलाम फ़रीद) or Khawaja Farid (1845-1901) is considered one of the most read and respected sufi poets in the Indian subcontinent. He belonged to Chishti-Nizami sufi order. He was born and died at Chachran Sharif and was buried at Mithankot in district Rajanpur. He traveled to different cities and preached for Islam and peace.

He was the son of Khwaja Khuda Bakhsh. His mother died when he was five years old and he was orphaned at age twelve when his father died. He was educated by his elder brother, Fakhr Jahan Uhdi.

He was a scholar of that time and wrote several books. He knew Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi, Braj Bhasha, and Saraiki. He is great poet of Saraiki waseb. He also wrote some poems in Sindhi, Persian, and Braj Bhasha. He was an anti-imperialist poet. He opposed British rule in Bahawalpur. He said to ruler of Bahawalpur in his poem, "You rule yourself on your state and finish police station of British from your state." اپڑیں ملک کوں آپ وسا توں۔پٹ انگریزی تھانے

[edit] Works by Khawaja Ghulam Farid

  • Dewan-e-Farid in 1882 (Saraiki Poetry)
  • Dewan-e-Farid in 1884 (Urdu Poetry)
  • Manaqabe Mehboobia (Persian prose)

[edit] Themes of Poetry and Teachings

His poetry is full of love with Allah, Prophet Muhammad s.a, humanity and nature. He has used the symbolism of desert life of Rohi Cholistan and waseb at most places in his poetry.

The beloved's intense glances call for blood
The dark hair wildly flows The Kohl of the eyes is fiercely black
And slays the lovers with no excuse
My appearance in ruins, I sit and wait
While the beloved has settled in Malheer I feel the sting of the cruel dart
My heart the, abode of pain and grief A life of tears, I have led Farid
-one of Khwaja Ghulam Farid's poems (translated)

[edit] Faridiat

Faridiat : फ़रीदीयत (Devanagari), فریدیات (Shahmukhi) ਫ਼ਰੀਦੀਅਤ (Gurmukhi)) is a new topic about Khawaja Farid's life, poetry and his mysticism. There are several books and hundreds articles on this topic. There are also experts of Khawaja Farid as under

  • Maulana Noor Ahmed Faridi: He translated Dewan-Farid
  • Mehr Abdul Haq: His books are Lughat-Faridi and Piam-Farid and other[1]
  • Christopher Shackle: His book is Teachings of Khaja Farid and other[2]
  • Javed Chandio : A trend setter critic in Fareediat with six important books and many articles on the subject. He is currently the Incharge of Khwaja Farid Chair, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur(Pakistan).
  • Wahid Bakhish Sial: He translated Maqbees-ul-Majalis
  • Mujahid Jatoi: His book is 'Aa pahntum jeendian makay
  • Saeed Ahmed Sheikh: His book is Ustad Dileen de
  • Aziz-ur-Rahman Khan: He was the first who translated 'Dewan-i-Farid
  • Akram Qureshi: His book is Auzan Dewan-i-Farid
  • Aslam Metala: He wrote several books'one of its is Zauq-i-Farid

[edit] Some books on Faridiat

There are hundred books on this topic. Name of few books are under

  • Shackle Christopher :Teachings of Khawaja Farid Published : Bazm-i- Saqafat Multan
  • Shackle Christopher: Fifty poems of Khawaja Farid (Translation)Publisher: Bazm-i-Saqafat Multn
  • Sheikh Muhammad Saeed Ahmed: Ustad Deleenday edition 2000: Publisher: Jhoke Kitab Ghar bazaar Kutub firoshan androon bohar gate Multan
  • Metla  Muhammad Aslam Zauq-I-Farid edition 2001: Saraiki Adbi Majlis Bahawalpur
  • Anwaar Ahmed Khawaja Farid ke teen Rang  edition 1985:Bazm-I-Saqafat. Multan
  • Qureshi  Muhammad Akram: Auozan Dewan Farid edition 2005::Bazm-I-Saqfat Multan
  • Jatoi  Mujahid Atwar-I-Farid [3] edition 2003: Jhoke publisher Multan
  • Jatoi  Mujahid Hiat-ul-Mahboob edition 2005: Khawaja Farid foundation Mithankot
  • Akhtar  Shabir Hassan: Farid Shanasi edition 2001: Bazm-I-Saqafat Multan
  • Feroz  Abu Saeed Muhammad Anwar Ghauhar Shab-I-Chiraz edition third 1999 Saraiki Adbi Majlis Bahawalpur
  • Chadhri Hanif: Mutalea Farid Ka aik nia Rukh edition2002: Saraiki Research center .B, Z.University Multan
  • Chandio Javed: Khawaja Farid edition 1999:Saraiki Adbi Majlis Bahawalpur
  • Junejo Abdul Jabbar Dr: Mera ishq bhi too edition 2002 Bazm-I-Saqafat Multan
  • Iqbal  Khalid: Bhag Suhag Farid edition 2006: Sujak Adbi Sangat Shadan lund Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Taunsvi Tahir Dr: Mutalea-Farid ke das saal edition 2001: Book man Nila Gunbad Lahore
  • Metla Aslam: Mahram Raz Deleeday edition 2005: Bazm-I-Saqafat: Multan
  • Metla Aslam Zikr-I-Farid edition 1994: Metla Publications: Tehsil Jahanian Khaniwal
  • Durani Jamila: Khawaja Ghulam Farid _Shakhs and Shaer edition 1996:Becon Books Gulgasht Multan
  • Chandio Javed Armughan Khawaja Farid edition 2001: Bazm-I-Saqafat Multan
  • Alam Khursheed: Pakistan mein Mutalea Farid ki Rewayat edition 1999: Saraiki Adbi Board Multan

Many religious and educational institutions are named after him. Many streets, towns and shops are also named after him.

[edit] Notes

Fariduddin Mas'ud Ganjshakar

گنجِ شکر Ganj-e-Shakar شیخ العالم Shaikh-ul-Alam

Born 1173/1188
 Kothewal village in Multan, Pakistan
Died 1266/1280
 Pakpattan, Pakistan
Honored in Islam, specifically the Chishti Sufi order
Influences Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki
Influenced Countless Pakistani and South Asian Sufis, including Nizamuddin Auliya, Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari and Khawaja Ghulam Farid

Farīduddīn Mas'ūd Ganjshakar (Punjabi: ਹਜ਼ਰਤ ਬਾਬਾ ਫ਼ਰੀਦੁਦ੍ਦੀਨ ਮਸੂਦ ਗੰਜਸ਼ਕਰ (Gurmukhi), حضرت بابا فرید الدّین مسعود گنج شکر (Shahmukhi)) (1173–1266)[1][2] or (1188 (584 Hijri) - May 7, 1280 (679 Hijri)),[3][4] commonly known as Baba Farid (Punjabi: بابا فرید (Shahmukhi), ਬਾਬਾ ਫ਼ਰੀਦ (Gurmukhi)), was a 12th-century Sufi preacher and saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia.[1]

Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language,[3] and is considered one of the pivotal saints of the Punjab region. Revered by Muslims and Hindus, he is considered one of the fifteen Sikh bhagats, and selections from his work are included in the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh sacred scripture.[5] He is buried in Pakpattan, in present-day Punjab, Pakistan.

[edit] Life

Bābā Farīd was born in 1173 or 1188 AD (584 Hijri) at Kothewal village, 10 km from Multan in the Punjab region of the Chauhan dynasty in what is now Pakistan, to Jamāl-ud-dīn Suleimān and Maryam Bībī (Qarsum Bībī), daughter of Sheikh Wajīh-ud-dīn Khojendī.[6] He was a descendant of the Farrūkhzād, known as Jamāl-ud-Dawlah, a Persian (Tajik) king of eastern Khorasan.[7]

He was the grandson of Sheikh Shu'aib, who was the grandson of Farrukh Shah Kabuli, the king of Kabul and Ghazna. When Farrukh Shāh Kābulī was killed by the Mongol hordes invading Kabul, Farīd’s grandfather, Shaykh Shu'aib, left Afghanistan and settled in the Punjab in 1125.[8]

Farīd’s genealogy is a source of dispute, as some trace his ancestors back to al-Husayn while others trace his lineage back to the second Caliph Umar ibn Khattab. Baba Farid's ancestors came from Kufa, while Abdullah ibn Umar died during the Hajj and was buried in Makkah. The family tree of Baba Fareed traces through Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Adham, whose ancestors came from Kufa.

Fariduddin Ganjshakar was born in the city of Balkh. His nickname was Abu Ishaq. Khwajah Fudhail Bin Iyadh had conferred the mantle of Khilaafate to him. Besides being the Khalifah of Hadhrat Fudhail, he was also the Khalifah of Khwajah Imran Ibn Musa, Khwajah Imam Baqir, Khwajah Shaikh Mansur Salmi and Khwajah Uwais Qarni."[9]

Bābā Farīd received his early education at Multan, which had become a centre for education; it was here that he met his murshid (master), Quṭbuddīn Bakhtiyār Kākī, a noted Sufi saint, who was passing through Multan, from Baghdad on his way to Delhi.[7] Upon completing his education, Farīd left for Sistan and Kandahar and went to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage at the age of 16.

Once his education was over, he shifted to Delhi, where he learned the doctrine of his master, Quṭbuddīn Bakhtiyār Kākī. He later moved to Hansi, Haryana.[4][10] When Quṭbuddīn Bakhtiyār Kākī died in 1235, Farīd left Hansi and became his spiritual successor, but he settled in Ajodhan[11] (the present Pakpattan, Pakistan) instead of Delhi. On his way to Ajodhan, while passing through Faridkot, he met the 20-year-old Nizāmuddīn, who went on to become his disciple, and later his successor (khalīfah).

Bābā Farīd married Hazabara, daughter of Sulṭān Nasīruddīn Maḥmūd. The great Arab traveller Ibn Baṭūṭah visited him. He says that he was the spiritual guide of the King of India, and that the King had given him the village of Ajodhan. He also says that Shaikh Farīduddīn, as he calls him, was so careful about purity that if his clothes touched those of another person he would wash them. He also met Bābā Farīd's two sons. His shrine (darbār) is in Dera Pindi, and his epitaph reads, "There is only one Farīd, though many spring forth from the bud of the flower".

Bābā Farīd's descendants, also known as Fareedi, Fareedies and Faridy, mostly carry the name Fārūqī, and can be found in Pakistan, India and the diaspora. His descendants include the Sufi saint Salim Chishti, whose daughter was Emperor Jehangir's foster mother. Their descendants settled in Sheikhupur, Badaun and the remains of a fort they built can still be found.

[edit] Poetry

Farīdā bhumi rangāvalī manjhi visūlā bāg

Fareed, this world is beautiful, but there is a thorny garden within it.

Farīdā jo taīN mārani mukīāN tinhāN na mārē ghumm

Fareed, do not turn around and strike those who strike you with their fists.

Farīdā jā lab thā nēhu kiā lab ta kūṛhā nēhu

Fareed, when there is greed, what love can there be? When there is greed, love is false.

Kālē maiḍē kapṛē, kālā maiḍā wais,
GunahīN bhariyā maiN phirāN, Lōk kahaiN darvēsh

Laden with my load of misdeeds, I move about in the garb of black garments.
And the people see me and call me a dervish.

GallīN cikkaṛ dūr ghar, nāḷ piyārē nīNh,
ChallāN tē bhijjē kamblī, rahāN tāN ṭuṭṭē nīNh.

My promise to my love, a long way to go and a muddy lane ahead
If I move I spoil my cloak; if I stay I break my word.[6]

[edit] Legacy

One of Farīd’s most important contributions to Punjabi literature was his development of the language for literary purposes. Whereas Sanskrit, Arabic, Turkish and Persian had historically been considered the languages of the learned and the elite, and used in monastic centres, Punjabi was generally considered a less refined folk language. Although earlier poets had written in a primitive Punjabi, before Farīd there was little in Punjabi literature apart from traditional and anonymous ballads. By using Punjabi as the language of poetry, Farīd laid the basis for a vernacular Punjabi literature that would be developed later.

Among the famous people who have visited his shrine over the centuries are the famous scholar-explorer Ibn Battuta, who visited in 1334,[12] and the Founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak Dev, who met the then head of the shrine, Sheikh Ibrāhīm, twice, and his meeting led to the incorporation of 112 couplets (saloks) and four hymns by Bābā Farid, in the Sikh Holy Book, the Guru Granth Sahib, by the fifth Guru, Arjan Dev in 1604.[4] Guru Nanak was familiar with the verse of Bābā Farīd, and not only includes these verses in the Holy Book, but even comments on some of them.[13] These verses are known to the Sikhs as the Farīd-Bānī; Guru Arjan Dev also added eighteen saloks from the Sikh Gurus, which add commentary to various of Bābā Farīd's work.[13]

The city of Faridkot bears his name. According to legend, Farīd stopped by the city, then named Mokhalpūr, and sat in seclusion for forty days near the fort of King Mokhal. The king was said to be so impressed by his presence that he named the city after Bābā Farīd, which today is known as Tilla Bābā Farīd. The festival Bābā Sheikh Farād Āgman Purb Melā' is celebrated in September each year from (21-23 sep, 3 days), commemorating his arrival in the city.[14][15] Ajodhan[11] was also renamed as Farīd's 'Pāk Pattan', meaning 'Holy Ferry'; today it is generally called Pāk Pattan Sharīf.[12]

Faridia Islamic University, a religious madrassa in Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan, is named after him,[16] and in July 1998, the Punjab Government in India established the Baba Farid University of Health Sciences at Faridkot, the city which itself was named after him.[17][18]

Various accounts are related as to why Bābā Farīd was given the title Shakar Ganj[19] ('Treasure of Sugar'). One legend tells how his mother used to encourage the young Farīd to pray by placing sugar under his prayer mat. Once, when she forgot, the young Farīd found the sugar anyway, an experience that gave him more spiritual fervour and led to his being given the name.[4]

Other accounts and legends also says that Baba Farid once a caught a bolt of lightning with his bare hands and placed it into a pot, which saved the lives of many civilians.

[edit] Tomb

The small tomb of Baba Farid is made of white marble with two doors, one facing east and called the Nūrī Darwāza or 'Gate of Light', and the second facing north called Bahishtī Darwāza, or 'Gate of Paradise'. There is also a long covered corridor. Inside the tomb are two white marbled graves. One is Baba Farid's, and the other is his elder son's. These graves are always covered by sheets of cloth called Chadders (the green coloured chadders are covered with Islamic verses), and flowers that are brought by visitors. The space inside the tomb is limited; not more than ten people can be inside at one time. Ladies are not allowed inside the tomb, but the late Benazir Bhutto, then prime minister of Pakistan, managed to enter inside when she visited the shrine.

[edit] Shrine

The Shrine (mazar/mazār) is vast and spacious, located in the city of Pakpattan, otherwise Pākpattan Sharīf. At first his tomb and shrine were constructed under the supervision of Saint Nizamuddin Auliya/Khawaja Nizamuddin Aulia. The shrine is made entirely of marble. Some years back it was partly made of marble and bricks. Charity food called Langar is distributed all day by visitors and the Auqaf Department, which administrates the shrine. The shrine is open all day and night for visitors. The shrine has its own huge electricity generator that is used whenever there is power cut or loadshedding, so the shrine remains bright all night, all year round. There is no separation of male and female areas but a small female area is also there. There is a big new mosque in the shrine. Thousands of people daily visit the shrine for their wishes and unresolvable matters; for this they vow to give to some charity when their wishes or problems are resolved. When their matters are solved they bring charity food for visitors and the poor, and drop money in big money boxes that are kept for this purpose. This money is collected by the Auqaf Department that looks after the shrine.

On October 25, 2010, a bomb exploded outside the gates of the shrine, killing six people.[20][21]

[edit] Death Anniversary/Urs

Every year, the saint's death anniversary is celebrated for six days in the first Islamic month of Muharram, in Pakpattan, Pakistan. The Bahishtī Darwāza (Gate of Paradise) is opened only once a year, during the time of the urs/fair. Hundreds of thousands of pilgrims and visitors from all over the country and the world come to pay homage. The door of the Bahishti Darwaza is made of silver, with floral designs inlaid in gold leaf. This "Gate to Paradise" is padlocked all year, and only opened for ten days from sunset to sunrise in the month of Muharram. Some followers believe that by crossing this door all of one's sins are washed away. Some critics say it is unholy to pass through this door only with this intention. Others argue that it is good to pass this door with a resolution not to commit sins in the future. During the opening of the Gate of Paradise, extensive security arrangements are made to protect people from stampedes. In 2001, 27 people were crushed to death and 100 were injured in a stampede.[22] A large brick tomb adjacent to the main tomb is the resting place of Fariduddin's siblings.[3] The 'urs is celebrated every year from the fifth through the tenth of Muharram. Some of his personal belongings were taken by his descendant Sheikh Salim to a fort he built for his family in Sheikhupur, Badaun, where they are preserved in a trunk called 'pitari'. To this day it is taken out in a procession for the first six days of Muharram.

[edit] Mehfil-e-Sama (Qawwali)

One of the significant features of the daily life of the shrine is Qawwali. It is performed all day at some part of the shrine, but at night it attracts a huge gathering. Every Thursday evening, there is a big Mehfil-e-Sama just outside the tomb, that lasts all night and attracts hundreds of people. Many famous and popular Qawwals (Qawwali singers) of the country participate in the Mehfil. Many listeners become so mesmerised that they start dancing a traditional religious dance called Dhamaal. The first Thursday evening of every lunar month attracts extra thousands of people, making the shrine jam packed.

[edit] Further reading

  • Faridnama by Zahid Abrol, (the first-ever Poetical Translation of Shiekh Farid's Punjabi Verses in Urdu and Hindi Scripts), 2003 Ajanta Book, ISBN 978-81-202-0587-1.[23]
  • Sheikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal, English translation, by H. Blochmann and Colonel H. S. Jarrett, 1873–1907. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta; Volume III, Saints of India. (Awliyá-i-Hind), page 363.
  • Pakpattan and Baba Farid Ganj-i-Shakar, by Muhammad Abdullah Caghtai. Kitab Khana Nauras, 1968.
  • Baba Sheikh Farid: Life and teachings, by Gurbachan Singh Talib. Baba Farid Memorial Society, 1973.
  • Baba Farid (Makers of Indian literature), by Balwant Singh Anand, Sahitya Akademi, 1975.
  • Baba Farid-ud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakar, by Jafar Qasimi. Islamic Book Foundation. 1978.
  • Sheikh Baba Farid aur unka Kavya, by Jayabhagavan Goyal. 1998, Atmarama & Sons. ISBN 81-7043-081-X.
  • Savanih hayat Baba Farid Ganj-i Shakar, by Pir Ghulam Dastgir Nami. Madni Kutub Khanah.
  • Baba Farid Ganjshakar, by Shabbir Hasan Cishti Nizami. Asthana Book Depot.
  • Love is his own power: The slokas of Baba Farid. 1990, ISBN 81-7189-135-7.
  • Hazrat Baba Farid-ud-Din Masood Ganj Shakar, by Sheikh Parvaiz Amin Naqshbandy. Umar Publications, 1993.
  • Baba Farid di dukh–chetana, by Sarawan Singh Paradesi. 1996, Ravi Sahitya Prakashan, ISBN 81-7143-235-2.
  • Hymns of Sheikh Farid, by Brij Mohan Sagar. South Asia Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8364-5985-7.
  • Sheikh Farid, by Dr. Harbhajan Singh. Hindi Pocket Books, 2002. ISBN 81-216-0255-6.
  • " Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab " by R. M. Chopra, Iran Society, Kolkata, 1999.

[edit] Notes

  1. a b "Baba Sheikh Farid Shakarganj (1173 - 1266 A.D.)". Sandeep Singh Bajwa. http://www.sikh-history.com/sikhhist/events/farid.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  2. The book Siyar-ul Awliyā, one of the earliest sources, he was born in 569 AH /1173 AD; the slightly later work Fawā'id-ul Fu'ād gives the date as 571 AH/1175 AD.)
  3. a b c Shrine of Baba Farid at Pakpattan
  4. a b c d Sheikh Farid, by Dr. Harbhajan Singh. Hindi Pocket Books, 2002. ISBN 81-216-0255-6. Page 11.
  5. Sikh Bhagats : Baba Sheikh Farid Ji - Biography
  6. a b Sufis - Wisdom against Violence The South Asian, April, 2001.
  7. a b Sheikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal, English translation, by H. Blochmann and Colonel H. S. Jarrett, 1873–1907. The Asiatic    
  8. Society of Bengal, Calcutta; Volume III, Saints of India. (Awliyá-i-Hind), page 363.
  9. Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganj-e-Shakar - Biography Sufi Study Circle of Toronto.
  10. http://books.themajlis.net/node/485
  11. Baba Sheikh Farid Shakarganj - Biography www.punjabilok.com.
  12. a b Ajodhan's former name: Ajay Vardhan
  13. a b Pakpatthan Town The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1090, v. 19, p. 332.
  14. a b Pashaura Singh, 'The Bhagats of the Guru Granth Sahib', Ch. 2 'Bani Shaikh Farid Ji Ki. Pg.44. (OUP 2003.)
  15. Manns draw crowds at Baba Farid Mela The Tribune, September 25, 2007.
  16. Tilla Baba Farid The Tribune, September 25, 2007.
  17. Faridia Islamic University
  18. Introduction Baba Farid University of Health Sciences Official website.
  19. "District: Faridkot" (PDF). National Informatics Centre, Punjab State Unit, Chandigarh. http://pbsc.nic.in/pdf/districts/faridkot.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
  20. The original was probably the Persian Ganj-i Shakar, with the same meaning.
  21. Reza Sayah (October 25, 2010). "4 killed in blast at Pakistan shrine". CNN News. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/asiapcf/10/24/pakistan.blast/?hpt=T2.
  22. Kamran Haider, Mian Khursheed, Hasan Mahmood (October 25, 2010). "Bomb kills six at Sufi shrine in eastern Pakistan". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE69O06820101025.
  23. "Fatal stampede at Pakistan festival". BBC News. 2001-04-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1254207.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
  24. Tanvir Siddiqui (April 29, 2004). "Not lost in translation: This bank official is well-versed in poetry". The Indian Express. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=83094.

Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari

Mir Surkh, Mir Buzurg, Makhdum-ul-Azam, Surkh-Posh, Jalal Ganj

Born c. 595 AH (1199 CE)
Bukhara
Died c. 690 AH (1291 CE)
Uch
Honored in Islam, specifically the Suhrawardi Sufi order
Influences Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Influenced South Asian Sufis

Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (Urdu: سید جلال الدین سرخ پوش بخاری (c. 595-690 AH, 1199–1291 CE[1]) was a prominent Naqvi Sufi saint and missionary. Bukhari was called Surkh-posh ("Red-clad") on account of the red mantle he often wore. The term Bukhari refers to his hometown of Bukhara.[2]

[edit] Names

Bukhari's original name was Jalaluddin, kunya Abu Ahmed (ابواحمد), while Mir Surkh, Sharrif ullah, Mir Buzurg, Makhdum-ul-Azam, Jalal Akbar, Azim ulllah, Sher Shah, Jalal Azam and Surkh-Posh Bukhari were his titles.[3] He was also known as Jalal Ganj. He was formally called Sayyid Jalaluddin Mir Surkh Bukhari as well as Shah Mir Surkh-Posh of Bukhara, Pir Jalaluddin Qutub-al-Aqtab, Sayyid Jalal or Sher Shah Sayyid Jalal.

[edit] Life

Bukhari was born on Friday, 5th Dhu al-Hijjah 595 AH in Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan. He was the son of Syed Ali Al-Moeed and grandson of Syed Ja’far Muhammed Hussain.[4] He got his early education in Bukhara under the supervision and guidance of his father.

His first marriage was in Bukhara with Syeda Fatima, daughter of Syed Qasim, who bore Syed Ali and Syed Ja’far. After her death, migrated from Bukhara to Bhakkar along with his two sons in 635 AH.[5] In Bhakkar, he married the daughter of Sayyid Badruddin Bhakkari, Sayyida Sharifa Bibi Táhirih, and with her he had two sons Sayyid Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus and Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom (their descendants are settled in and around Thatta, Uchch and Lahore). One daughter of Sayyid Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus married Jahaniyan Jahangasht.[3] After the death of his second wife he married another daughter of Sayyid Badruddin Bhakkari, Sayyida Bibi Fatima Habiba Saeeda. She bore him his youngest son Syed Ahmed Kabir (father of Jahaniyan Jahangasht).[3]

Bukhari died at the age of 95 years on 19th Jumada al-awwal 690 AH (20 May 1291 CE) in Uchch, Punjab.[3]

[edit] Career

Bukhari spent his whole life in traveling and several tribes, such as the Soomro, Samma, Chadhar, Sial, Daher, and Warar and others adopted Islam owing to his efforts. Bukhari's history and pedigree are given in extend in such works as the Mazher-i-Jalali, the Akber-ul-Akhyar, the Rauzat-ul-Ahbab, Maraij-ul-Walayat, Manaqabi Qutbi, the Siyar-ul-Aqtar, the Siyar-ul-Arifeen, the Manaqib-ul-Asifya etc. These books only exist in manuscript and are generally found in the possession of Bukhari Sayyids. Sayyid Jalal's life is given in brief below:

He also met Chengiz Khan, the Mongol, and endeavoured to convert him to Islam, but Chengiz Khan ordered him to be burnt alive.[citation needed] The fire however turned into a bush of roses and on seeing this miracle Chengiz Khan became inclined to be more sympathetic towards Islam and Muslims[citation needed]. Chengiz offered to give his daughter in marriage to Hazrat Jalaludin. He at first refused to take Chengiz's daughter as his wife but then he heard a divine voice say that his descendants would spread far and wide and were destined to be Qutubs "saints" of the world, he consented to the marriage[citation needed]. This proved to be true as his descendants are quite numerous, and many Sayyid families in the Punjab, Sindh, the United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh), Kachchh and Hyderabad Deccan, claim descent from him, and trace their origins to Uchch Sharrif. His two male issues from his second wife, Fatima, the daughter of Sayyid Qasim Hussein Bukhari, Sayyid Ali and Sayyid Jaffar, are buried in tombs at Bukhara. He brought his son Sayyid Baha-ul-Halim with him to Sindh and he settled in Uchch in 1244 CE.

Sayyid Jalaluddin afterwards married Zohra, the daughter of Sayyid Badar-u-Din Bhakkari, of whom was born Sayyid Mohammad Ghaus. On Zohra's death he married the second daughter of Sayyid Badar-u-Din Bhakkari, who give birth to Sayyid Ahmed Kabir, the father of Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht and Makhdoom Sadruddin. Firuz Shah Tughlaq sent the Son of Makhdoom Sadruddin,Syed Hassamuddin Hassan Bukhari to Kara-Manikpur and he is buried in Parsaki or Parsakhi,The Kokhraj(Koh-e-Kharaj)OR Koh-e-Inam in the district of Allahabad (near Kara-Manikpur) and his descendents are presently found in pargana Chail of Allahabad and are known as Naqvi ul-Bukhari Sada'at of Chail ) total he had 22 sons. In 642 AH (Hijri) when Nasiruddin Mahmud, son of Shams-u-Din Altamash, was Sultan (ruler) of the kingdom of Delhi[citation needed], Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari reached Uch, which was then called Deogarh[citation needed], and its people began through him, to embrace Islam. The Raja Deo Singh, its ruler[citation needed], was greatly incensed at this, and spared no effort to cause him trouble, but being overawed by the Sayyid's miracles he fled to Marwar[citation needed]. Innumerable miracles are attributed to him[citation needed]. The reverence which he enjoyed may be judged from the fact that rulers used to wait upon him at Uch, for example in 642 AH (Hijri). Nasiruddin Mahmud, the eldest son of Shams-ud-din Altamash, paid him visit at Uch.

He died in 690 AH (Hijri) in the reign of Ghayas-u-Din Balban, and was buried at Sonak Bela 3 miles of Uch, but the river Ghaggar reaching quite close to his grave; his descendants removed his remains to Uch and buried them at the place where the shirne Hazrat Sadar-u-Din Rajan Qattal is now situated. Again in 1027 AH (Hijri) the then Sajjada Nashin Makhdoom Hamid son of Muhammad Nassir-u-Din, removed the remains, buried them in the present spot and erected a building over them. In 1261 AH, Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan III made some additions to it and built a tank and well, called the khan sir, in compound of the shrine. In 1300 AH, Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV had it repaired and made some additions. Both Hindus and Muslims in and outside the state have a firm faith in this Khanqah and all kinds of vows are made there.

[edit] Mission

He spread Islam to Sindh and Southern Punjab and is responsible for conversion of Samma tribes among others to Islam. He also laid the foundations of a religious school in Uch (also spelled Uchch). He moved back to Bukhara once and later returned to finally settle in Uchch in 1244 CE.

He was founder of the "Jalali " Section of the "Suhrawardiyya" Sufi Order, "Jalali" being named after him. Some of his successors in the line went to Gujerat and became very famous there. This includes Jalaluddin bin Ahmad Kabir, popularly known as Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht (d. 1384 CE), who made thirty-six visits to Mecca; Abu Muhammad Abdullah, popularly known as Burhanuddin Qutb-e-Alam (d. 1453 CE) and Sayyed Muhammad Shah Alam (d. 1475 CE).

It is narrated that Makhdoom Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari had urged Genghis Khan to spare the innocent people and embrace Islam. Enraged by this bold act of Jalaluddin, Genghis Khan ordered that he might be thrown in fire. But to the utter surprise of Genghis Khan and his courtiers the fire did not hurt Jalaluddin Bukhari[citation needed].

The pioneers of the 13th century Sufi movement in South Asia were four friends known as "Chaar Yaar":

  1. Baba Farid Shakar Ganj of Pakpattan [1174-1266 CE)
  2. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uchch [c. 1199-1291 CE)
  3. Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan [1170-1267 CE) and
  4. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan {1177–1274 CE)

It is said that 17 leading tribes of Punjab accepted Islam at the hands of Baba Farid. Some of these tribes were Kharal, Dhudhyan, Tobian and also Wattu, a Rajput tribe. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari converted the Samma tribes of Sindh as stated earlier, the Sial, Chadhar, Daher and Warar tribes of Southern Punjab and Sindh, and several other tribes while Shahbaz Qalandar had a great following in Multan and Northern Sindh.

Present city of Jhang is also said to have been founded by Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (in 1134 CE according to some sources). Its first inhabitants were Sials who were followers ( mureed) of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari . It was then destroyed by the river and re-founded during the reign of Aurangzeb by his descendant Syed Mehboob Alam Naqvi-ul Bukrari Al-Maroof Shah Jewna who asked his (mureed) followers to settle again in that area.

He is also reported to have met Makhdum Shah Daulah, a saint buried in Bengal, at Bukhara where he presented Makhdum Shah Daulah with a pair of gray pigeon as a token of good wishes. From Bukhara the Makhdum Shah Daulah party proceeded towards Bengal and settled at Shahzadpur, a locality under the jurisdiction of a Hindu king whose kingdom extended up to Bihar. The king ordered for the expulsion of Makhdum Shah Daulah and his companions. Consequently there ensued a severe fight between the two parties in which Makhdum Shah Daulah with all his followers, except Khwaja Nur, was killed and is buried beside the old Shahi mosque at Shahzadpur.[6]

Mai Heer of the Sial tribe and of the "Heer Ranjha" fame was daughter of Choochak Sial who was disciple of Hazrat Syed Ahmed Kabir, son of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari.

[edit] Family

Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari was Naqvi Sayyid. Sayyid is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatimah and son-in-law and Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Whereas Naqvi is a family name used by the "Syed" or "Sayyid" who are through the lineage of Ali al-Hadi (Arabic: الإمام علي الهادي).

His family was one of the most revered and prominent Muslim families during the rule of the Turkish dynasties in India including the Tughlaq and Mamluk dynasties of Delhi. His descendants are called Naqvi al-Bukhari. The part of Uchch where this family settled is called "Uchch Bukharian" to this day.Some of his family members migrated to Biloot Sharif and the Tribal Areas of Kurram, Orakzai Agency and Kohat District. The well known spiritual head of the Bukhari's Syed in Kurram Agency was Syed Pahlawan Shah who was the son of Syed Hussain Ali Shah popularly know in the spiritual circles as Fakir ul Fukara. While in Orakzai Agency Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari was presented by Syed Pahlwan Shah's elder brother Syed Gul Badshah who was both a worldly and spiritual head of his followers. Syed Pahlawan Shah was against the British rule in the Sub-Continent and his consistent resistance towards English Lords made him an alarmingly acclaimed figure for the British Political Agents in Kurram Agency . He and his followers proved as a lead wall against the tyrannic rules and laws of the British in the Tribal Areas of Kurram and Orakzai Agencies . His self evident miracles made him a legendary figure among his followers in both of the Tribal Areas. There are magnificent tombs of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari descendants and disciples all across Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These include Hazrat Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Hazrat Rajan Qittal; Hazart Shah Esa Qital (Biloot), Bibi Jawindi (c. 1492 CE, she is great grandauther of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari ), Hazrat Mir Mohammad Masoom (Forefather of Jam Bokhari Naqvi family) and Channan Pir among others. Tomb of Bibi Jawindi and tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari are on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage site since 2004.[7] They are also listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, and again listed in 2000 and 2002.[8] Many of his disciples are buried in Bhambore and Makli near Thatta.

[edit] Family lineage

According to "Mara'at Jalali", written by Syed Khalil Ahmad Bukhari Hassami (1918)[3] and Tareekh Gulzar Shams and "Malfuzul Makhdoom" by Syed Jalaluddin,Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari's family lineage is as under:

  1. Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari
  2. Sayyid Ali Al-Moeed
  3. Sayyid Ja’far Muhammed Hussain
  4. Sayyid Muhammad
  5. Sayyid Mahmood (he moved from Mashhad and settled in Bukhara)
  6. Sayyid Ahmed (his other son Sayyid Ali is forefather of Nizamuddin Auliya)
  7. Sayyid Abdulallh (he moved from Samarra and settled in Mashhad)
  8. Sayyid Ali Asghar,
  9. Sayyid Ja’far (he died in 271 AH (Hijri) and is buried in Samarra)
  10. Imam Ali al-Hadi
  11. Imam Muhammad al-Taqi
  12. Imam Ali ar-Ridha
  13. Imam Musa al-Kadhim
  14. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq
  15. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
  16. Imam Zayn al-Abidin
  17. Imam Husayn ibn Ali
  18. Imam Ali ibn Abi-Talib

There were many religious leaders and sufia saints in his lineage. Among them Hazrat Shah Mohammad Ghouse migrated from Uchch and settled down in the Punjab, Hazrat Shah Jamal of Ichchra, Lahore' and numerous others.[citation needed]

Part of his family moved back to Turkistan and there were inter-marriages with the Tatar Mongol ruling clan of Bukhara.[citation needed] . It is said that he was married to Genghis Khan's daughter as well. A branch of the family moved subsequently to what is now Bursa in Turkey.[citation needed].

One of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari's descendants, Makhdoom Syed Fateh Muhammad Shah Bukhari al-maroof Ghazi Baba, travelled to Peshawar, and settled down in western suburbs of Peshawar in a village called Wadpagga Sharif. Syed Fateh Muhammad was the 15th descendant of Syed Nasiruddin Mehmood, who was the son of Makhdoom Jahanian. He had six sons, the eldest being Syed Abdul Wahab Shah, while the youngest one was Syed Abdullah Shah. Four of Makhdoom Syed Fateh's sons settled down in Wadpagga Sharif, while the other two moved to nearby areas, where they settled down. Wadpagga Village comprised predominantly of Bukhari Syeds and the Shrine of Ghazi Baba is the site of attraction of millions of his disciples, where they hold an annual Urs. Ghazi Baba is a contemporary of Mian Omar, a saint buried in Chamkani village in Peshawar. Some of the prominent elders of wadpagga village include Syed Rifaqat Ali Shah Bukhari, Syed Sadaqat Hussain Shah, Pir Syed Qaim Shah Bukhari, Makhdoom Syed Dawood Bukhari and Makhdoom Syed Basharat Ali Shah.

[edit] Jams of Dreg lineage (Bokhari Al-Naqvi Sadat in Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan)

The word "Jam" means Sardar, which is derived from Sindhi ancient language. There are two clans of Jams. One clan consists of Jams in Balochistan and Sindh. They are from the Jamoot tribe. Another clan lives in Multan and surrounding areas, especially Jams of Dreg, D.G Khan. These are the descendants of Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom who is of the 22 sons of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari and trace their origin to Uch Sharif[citation needed]. Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom is the source of information about "Mith Waly" in Multan[citation needed]. He is the descendant of Hazrat Hassan Jalaludin Bokhari, so the people belonging to this lineage are called “Jam Bokhari Naqvi�[citation needed]. Mostly they live in the Multan City, in an area called "Shah Yousaf Gardez Mohallah" and known as "Mithy Waly". The figures shows that the forefathers of Jam Bukharis Naqvis (Mithy Waly), that live in the heart of the Multan city came from Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan, because of the uncertain conditions there and starting to live besides the very famous place of Multan City, the Mizar of Hazrat Shah Yousaf Gardez R.A after arriving to Multan from Dreg. The three famous Bazurgs of this lineage are Mitha, Kura and Mohabbat shah. Mohammad Mitha and Mohammad Kurra both are the sons of Jam Mohammad Osman Shah of Dreg. He was a reputable person of his territory. He was a very pious and God fearing man. Mohammad Osman’s family lineage traced[citation needed] to Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom R.A, Uch Sharif, who was the son of Syed Hassan Jalaluddin Bukhari. After the death of Jam Mohammad Osman Shah; the head of the Jam Bokhari Naqvi family, people raised against his family. He had two sons and three daughters. Mitha and Kurra were his sons. Family of Mohammad Mitha is known as "Mitha Family" and family of Kurra is known as "Khurra Family". By seeing the unfavorable conditions, both brothers escaped from Dreg and migrated to Multan and started to live here. One of his cousin Mohabbat Shah also escaped with them. Multan,“Kury Wala�, became associated with the name of Kura. Muhammad Mitha, Muhammad Kura and Mohabbat Shah are buried besides “Bagh Langy Khan� which is famous with the name of Langy Khan.

Family lineage of Mitha is as below:

  1. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari,
  2. Sayyid Bahauddin Mir Mohamed Masoom,
  3. Mir Mohammad Kabir
  4. Mir Mohammad Ahmed
  5. Shahabuddin
  6. Mir Sher Ali
  7. Mohammad Ishaq Shah
  8. Abu Mohammad Ferozuddin Shah
  9. Feroz-ud-Din Shah
  10. Saddar-ud-Din Shah
  11. Rukun-ud-Din Shah
  12. Salahuddin Shah
  13. Saddar-ud-Shah
  14. Nizam-ud-Din Shah
  15. Nasir-ud-Din Shah
  16. Abu Muhammad Osman
  17. Mohammad Osman
  18. Mohammad Mitha

(Figurehead of Mithy Waly.)[9][10]

[edit] Descendants in Sindh-Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh

His descendants include many famous sufis specially in Sindh. After the death of Hazrat Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Hazrat Makhdoom Mehmood Nasiruddin qalan was declared as Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan.[citation needed] and then Hazrat Makhdoom Syed Abdullah Burhan u Deen Qutb E Aalam and they migrated to Gujrat (India). Makhdoom Syed Abdullah Burhan u Deen Qutb E Aalam had a son named Makhdoom Syed Shah Alam. After their death following were the sajadanasheens declared generation wise; Makhdoom Syed Burhan Muhammad, Makhdoom Syed Ahmad, Makhdoom Syed Abdul Shakoor, Makhdoom Syed Ahmad and Makhdoom Hazrat Syed Mehmood who migrated to Shahpur Jahaniyan District Nawabshah.His eldest son Makhdoom Muhammad Ali Rajan Sada Bhaag stayed in Uchh as sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan.His younger brother Makhdoom Syed Ahmad carried the mission in Sindh. His son Makhdoom Syed Hamid became the sajadanasheen as Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh. After their death following are the Sajadanasheens declared generation wise in Sindh; Makhdoom Syed Shah Mehmood, Makhdoom Syed Mehmood Abdul Ghafoor and Makhdoom Syed Ishaq Shah. Makhdoom Syed Ishaq Shah had a son named Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah later who was declared as Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh, their descendents are found residing in Sindh, Pakistan. He built the city named Shahpur Jahaniyan, which is in district Nawabshah, Sindh. Afterwords he migrated to the village known as Tando Jahania at Hyderabad. They had 8 Sons.

  1. Hazrat Syed Hamid Shah (had no child)
  2. Hazrat Syed Bahawal Shah (As Hazrat Syed Hamid Shah had no children Syed Bahawal Shah was declared 16th Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahania of Jahania family.)
  3. Hazrat Syed Ishaq Shah
  4. Hazrat Syed Ghulam Shah (had no child)
  5. Hazrat Syed Kamil Shah(who went back to their Parental place Shahpur Jahaniyan (Nawabshah), in Hazrat Kamil Shah's 4th Generation a great Poet was born whose name was Faqir Syed Mehdi Shah Jahaniyan, who was buried in Shahpur Jahaniyan's graveyard, In his 4th generation a child named Syed Kamil Shah Jahaniyan was borned later on who migrated to the village known as Muhammad Qasim Bughio near chowdaggi Hala road district Matiari, their tomb is in Shahpur Jahaniyan.)
  6. Hazrat Syed Buland Shah (Hazrat Syed Buland Shah's Son Syed Abdul Ghafoor Shah shifted to tando abdul ghafoor shah jahaniyan taluka qasimabad, hyderabad.)
  7. Hazrat Syed Sher Muhammad Shah
  8. Hazrat Syed Fateh Deen Shah (Hazrat Syed Fateh Deen Shah's son, Syed Qutub u Deen Shah Jahaniyan was a poet and saint & his son Syed Shams u Deen was a great poet too. His son was Syed Shams u Deen Shah Jahaniyan who had 3 grandsons named:
  1. Hazrat Syed Najaf Ali Shah (Kamtar Naqvi)
  2. Hazrat Syed Lutf Ali Shah (Manzoor Naqvi)
  3. Hazrat Syed Faiz Ali Shah (Faiz Naqvi)

Three of them are poets of Sindh.)

Hazrat Syed Fateh Deen Shah Jahaniyan is buried in the graveyard known as (wadee dargah), where their Father Hazrat Syed Weedhal Shah is buried too. Later on it was famous as dargah Syed Dadan Shah Jahaniyan.

After Makhdoom Bahawal Shah Jahaniyan, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Makhdoom Syed Dadan Shah Jahaniyan, Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah (3rd), & the Present one is Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh Syed Zawar Hussain Shah Jahaniyan he is known as Syed Zawar Naqvi.[11]

[edit] Role in the Muslim Rishi tradition in Kashmir

His disciple Lal Ded (or Lalleshwari (Hazrat Nuruddin Nurani's First Teacher) exercised a seminal influence on Hazrat Nurani's own spiritual development. Lal Ded's life is shrouded in mystery and legend, the first references to her being made in Farsi Muslim chronicles many years after her death. It is believed that she was born in the village of Sampora, near Srinagar, in 13th century CE in a Kashmiri Pundit family. As was the then prevalent custom, she was married off at a very young age to a Brahmin temple priest from the village of Padmanpora, the present-day Pampore. Her mother-in-law is said to have cruelly mistreated her, and her husband, jealous of her spiritual attainments and her growing popularity among the people, forced her out of his house. She then took to the jungles, roaming about completely naked, performing stern austerities and meditational practices. She met Hazrat Makhdum Jahaniyan Jahangasht (d. 1308 CE) and embraced Islam at his hands, after which she 'ascended the stages of suluk (the Sufi path)', and thereafter travelled widely with him all over Kashmir.

She is called Lalla 'Arifa ('Lalla, the Gnostic'), Lalla Madjzuba ('Lalla, the Ecstatic') and Rabi'a-e-Sani. According to local lore, Lal Ded died in 1400 CE just outside the Jami'a mosque at the town of Bijbehara. Her body was not to be found, and in its place her followers discovered a pile of flowers. Her Hindu disciples consigned them to the flames, while her Muslim followers buried them, each in accordance with their own religious customs. She in turn influenced Nuruddin Nurani who is considered by the Kashmiris, both Hindus as well as Muslims, as the patron saint of Kashmir. For this reason, he is lovingly referred to as the Alamdar-e-Kashmir ('flag bearer of Kashmir'), as well the Shaikh-ul 'alam ('the teacher of the whole world'). Although he was himself a Muslim and the order that he founded played a major role in the spread of Islam in Kashmir, he is regarded with deep veneration by the Hindus of Kashmir as well, for his message was one of universal love and harmony. Till this day, scores of people from all walks of life and from different religious communities flock to his shrine at Charari Sharief.[12]

[edit] Shrine

He was buried in a small town outside Uchch, but his tomb was damaged by floods, so in 1617 CE, his shrine was rebuilt in Mohalla Bukhari in Uchch by the Nawab of Bahawalpur, Bahawal Khan II. In the 18th century, the Abbasi Nawabs annexed Uchch into the princely state of Bahawalpur. The shrine lies a short walk away from the cemetery and is also built on a promontory, so one can look out onto the rolling plains below and the desert in the distance. To one side is an old mosque covered with blue-tile work and in front of a pool of water is the tomb proper. A carved wooden door leads into the room containing Bukhari's coffin.

[edit] Town of Uch

During the Islamic era in the subcontinent Uch and Multan became the greatest centers of academic and cultural excellence. The twin cities attracted the persons having expertise in various prevalent arts and sciences from every corner of the world. Numerous personalities enjoying reasonable socio-religious and academic status stood attached to the city of Uch. Hazrat Safi-ud-Din Gazruni (980-1007 CE) introduced the first academy of letters at Uch. Ali bin Hamid bin Abubakar Koofi, translated from Arabic into Persian[citation needed] the most authentic historical document " Chach Nama" migrated from Iraq to Uch. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari made Uch a center of religious education and preaching. Hazrat Jahaniyan Jahangasht (1308 – 1384 CE) belonged to this land of piety and righteousness. The well known reference of history "Tabqate Nasiri's" writer Minhaj-i-Siraj spent most part of his life at Uch.

Uchch Bukhari is the oldest settlement, dating back to about a thousand years and the monument complex. The complex is located on a mound that is considered the city's highest point. Hundreds of small, unmarked graves lead up to the monuments and palm trees dot the landscape beyond the fields that were once the riverbed of the Sutlej below. The three largest tombs, of Bibi Jawandi, Hazrat Baha Ul Halim and Ustad Nurya, were all once complete mausoleums covered with exquisite glazed tile-work. Now they are in ruins.

There is not much information available on the individuals who were buried in these tombs, the actual graves of Bibi Jawandi, Ustad Nurya and Hazrat Baha Ul Halim are no longer marked by a cenotaph. Ustad Nurya is said to be the architect responsible for Bibi Jawandi's mausoleum while Hazrat Baha Ul Halim was a direct descendant of Syed Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari. Bibi Jawandi's mausoleum is the oldest of the three. The architectural style of her tomb is indigenous to Upper Sindh and Lower Punjab, where moulded bricks are used as decorative elements. According to historian Holly Edwards, who has done extensive research on Bibi Jawandi's tomb, the bastions of the mausoleum are peculiar to the region. She has found only one other similar tomb in Central Asia. In addition, the wedge-shaped tiles that have been knitted into the structural core of the building are unique to this monument.

[edit] Commemoration

The Mela Uchch Sharif is a week-long mela (folk festival) usually held in March–April in Uchch, where many people from Southern Punjab come to honour Bukhari's role in spreading Islam. Participants visit Bukhari's shrne, and offer Friday prayers at the local mosque built by the Abbasids. The mela commemorates the congregation of Sufi saints held by Bukhari,[when?] and aligns with the Hindu calendar month Chait.[citation needed]

Jahaniyan Jahangasht

Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht مخدوم سید جہانیاں جہانگشت نقوی البخاری (b 1308- d 1384) was a famous Sufi saint from the South Asia. His descendants are known as Bukhari and are a prominent lineage of Suhrawardi Saadat. Makhdoom was born on 19 January 1308 AD (14 Shaban 707 AH) in Uch near Bahawalpur. His father, Syed Ahmed Kabir, was the youngest son of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari,[1] who came to the South Asia in 630 AH (1232 AD) from Bukhara.
Bibi Jawindi's Tomb

[edit] Name

Like his grandfather, his actual name was Jalaluddin, but due to his extensive travelling he acquired the title of Jahangasht, meaning "the world tourer".

[edit] Early life

He completed his education in Uch and Multan. Since the arrival of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari, his family had been the centre of Islamic propagation in South Asia and due to this prominent status Makhdoom was appointed Shaikh ul Islam by the king Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq. This was a lofty appointment however, Makhdoom left the job and set out for hajj by foot which was considered a noble way to express the devotion to Allah.

[edit] Travels and acquisition of knowledge

There are numerous mythical stories of his travels circulating around and they are obviously the fantasies of his overzealous devotees.[2] Makhdoom spent twelve years in traveling and studying. During his seven years stay in Mecca he would study during the day and earn his living by writing the copies of Quran at night. He also stayed in Medina for two years where he was once given the honour of leading the prayers in Masjid al Nabawi. By the end of his travels he became a prolific scholar in the Islamic sciences and ascended to the higher pedestal of Islamic sainthood.

[edit] Relations with Feroze Shah Tughlaq

After his return to the South Asia, Makhdoom earned enormous respect in the eyes of the king, Feroz Shah Tughlaq, and developed close relations with him. This was a unique act of Makhdoom, as the saints of his time would usually distance themselves from kings.

Feroze Shah would go many miles out of his capital city to welcome Makhdoom when he would visit him every second or third year. When Makhdoom would enter the court of Feroze Shah, the King would stand up to show respect for Makhdoom and when he would leave the court the king would stand up and remain standing until Makhdoom would go out of his sight. People would give Makhdoom their requests for the king which Makhdoom would convey. The King would also offer Makhdoom presents and sums of money which Makhdoom would only accept to help the poor and needy. Makhdoom would spend all of that wealth in alms and charity.

[edit] Teachings and sainthood

Makhdoom was a Muslim saint belonging to the Suhrawardiyya Chain of Sufism. He gained profound fame throughout the South Asia. Many students would come to him for the advanced studies of Islam. Not only the students but many religious scholars and Islamic judges would also consult him for guidance. Makhdoom was a strict follower of shariat, saying that he who did not follow shariat in his speech and action could not become wali (the friend of God). He authored many books some parts of which have survived and are still a source of guidance for the posterity.

[edit] Spreading Islam

Many tribes in Sindh, Punjab and Gujrat embraced Islam due to the efforts and teachings of Makhdoom.

[edit] Death

Makhdoom died at the age of seventy eight on 3 Feb 1384 (10 Zilhajj 785 AH). He is buried in Uch.

[edit] Mausoleum

His mausoleum in Uch is still an attraction for thousands of devotees. There is a mosque called Masjid e Hajjaj near his mausoleum. It is said that Makhdoom would pray in the same mosque. Baba Fareed ul Din Ganj Shakar and Naseerudin Chiragh Dehlvi also observed Etikaf in this mosque. Bibi Jawindi's mausoleum is a famous tourist attraction and is situated just next to the mausoleum of Makhdoom. She was the first cousin of Makhdoom being related to him as the daughter of his paternal aunt.

[edit] Descendants

Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht is the father of a large branch of Bukhari Sadaat Hazrat Jalaluddin Hussain Makhdoom Jahanian had six Children One daughter and five sons named.[citation needed] (1) Malik Jahan (2) Syed Nasiruddin Mehmood (3) Syed Bahauddin (4) Syed Mukarramuddin (5) Syed Hassanuddin (6) Syed Nooruddin.RH)

    (2)  SYED NASIR-UD-DIN MAHMOOD(Rahmatullah-e-Alaih)
Syed Nasiruddin Mahmood was the eldest son of Syed Jalaluddin Hussain Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht Bukhari. He was born on 2nd Zilqa’ad 740 Hijri (1338 A.D) and died on 22nd Ramazanul Mubarak 800 Hijri (1398 A.D) in Shiraz, Iran. He had houndrd sons twenty five has descendants. Named; (1) Syed Muhammad. (2) Syed Naseer-ud-din. (3) Syed Abdullah. (4) Syed Safoor-ud-din. (5) Syed Hameed-ud-Din. (6) Syed Alao-ud-Din, whose descendants have settled in Moza Santay Key Bahawalpur,. (7) Syed Taj-ud-Din, (8) Syed Burhan-ud-Din, whose descendants have settled in Districts Hisar. (9) Syed Badar-ud-Din, (10) Syed Abdul-Rehman, whose descendants have settled in Bahawalpur. (11) Syed Abdul-Salam.(12) Syed Siraj-ud-din, whose descendants have settled in Cha Changiwala Faisalabad.(13) Syed Badar-ul-Haq.(14) Syed Elam-ud-Din, whose descendants have settled in Moza DO Burgi Raheema da Chak & Moza Shah Alam Multan.(15) Syed Sadar-ud-Din (16) Syed Jamal-ud-Din , whose descendants have settled in Chak Sher Shah Bahawal Pur.(17) Syed Abdul Kareem. (18) Syed Razi-ud-Din, whose descendants have settled in Khankai jolai Districts Sahiwal.(19) Shahab-ud-din , whose descendants have settled in Moza Paka Sadhar Firozpur (India).(20) Syed Rukan-ud-Din, whose descendants have settled in Moza Sheray Wala Firozpur(India). (21) Syed Fazal-ud-din , whose descendants have settled in Moza Cuchak Districts Sahiwal.(22) Syed Ismail , whose descendants have settled in Moza Hasilpur Districts Bahawalpur and KILA Sitar Shah Districts Shaikhu Pura.(23) Syed Hamid Kabir ,whose descendants have settled in Distt Chakwal and Kallar kahar Pakistan .(24) Syed Kamir-ud-Din.(25) Syed Kamal-ud-Din,whose descendants have settled in Chak No 138/10-R Jahanian, Moza Behlol Pur Hugra Shah Mukeem , gulishan-e-Rafie Karachi and Treday wali Shaku pura . Most of the descendants of the sons of Syed Nasiruddin Mahmood are called as ‘Bukhari Sadaat’ in India and Pakistan but the descendants of Syed Nizamuddin S/O Syed Rukan-ud-din are called as ‘Sadaat Sherazi’ because they migrated to Sheraz, Iran and settled there. After a long perid of two hundred years, some of the descendants of Syed Nizamuddin migrated from Sheraz, Iran to Dheli, India and settled in different parts of India and Pakistan. May Allah keep his soul in His eternal peace.Amin!
  • Syed Nasir-ud-din Mehmood (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Kamal –ud-din (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Khan Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Ahmed Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Shahadat Ali (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Hakeem Ali (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Abdullah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Muhammad Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Miran Shah Noor (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Wajid Ali Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Saif Ali Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Amjad Ali Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Akbar Ali (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Sharaf Ali (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Niaz Ali Shah (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Dr Muhammad Hussain Rasool Puri (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Muhammad Tufail Rasool puri (Rahmatullah-e-Alaih).
  • Syed Muhammad Saleem Bukhari
  • Syed Shahzad Saleem Bukhari.

[edit] Descendants in Sindh-Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh

His descendants include many famous sufis specially in Sindh.After the death of Hazrat Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Hazrat Makhdoom Mehmood Nasiruddin qalan was declared as Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan.[3] & then Hazrat Makhdoom Syed Abdullah Burhan u Deen Qutb E Aalam & they migrated to Gujrat (India). Makhdoom Syed Abdullah Burhan u Deen Qutb E Aalam had a son named Makhdoom Syed Shah Alam. After their death following were the sajadanasheens declared generation wise; Makhdoom Syed Burhan Muhammad, Makhdoom Syed Ahmad, Makhdoom Syed Abdul Shakoor, Makhdoom Syed Ahmad and Makhdoom Hazrat Syed Mehmood who migrated to Shahpur Jahaniyan District Nawabshah.His eldest son Makhdoom Muhammad Ali Rajan Sada Bhaag stayed in Uchh as sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan.His younger brother Makhdoom Syed Ahmad carried the mission in Sindh. His son Makhdoom Syed Hamid became the sajadanasheen as Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh. After their death following are the Sajadanasheens declared generation wise in Sindh; Makhdoom Syed Shah Mehmood, Makhdoom Syed Mehmood Abdul Ghafoor & Makhdoom Syed Ishaq Shah. Makhdoom Syed Ishaq Shah had a son named Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah later who was declared as Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh, their descendents are found residing in Sindh, Pakistan. He built the city named Shahpur Jahaniyan which is in district Nawabshah, Sindh. Afterwords he migrated to the village known as Tando Jahania at Hyderabad. They had 8 Sons.

  1. Hazrat Syed Hamid Shah (had no child)
  2. Hazrat Syed Bahawal Shah (As Hazrat Syed Hamid Shah had no children Syed Bahawal Shah was declared 16th Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahania of Jahania Family.)
  3. Hazrat Syed Ishaq Shah
  4. Hazrat Syed Ghulam Shah (had no child)
  5. Hazrat Syed Kamil Shah(who went back to their Parental place Shahpur Jahaniyan (Nawabshah), in Hazrat Kamil Shah's 4th Generation a great Poet was born whose name was Faqir Syed Mehdi Shah Jahaniyan, who was buried in Shahpur Jahaniyan's graveyard, In his 4th generation a child named Syed Kamil Shah Jahaniyan was borned later on who migrated to the village known as Muhammad Qasim Bughio near chowdaggi Hala road district Matiari, their tomb is in Shahpur Jahaniyan.)
  6. Hazrat Syed Buland Shah (Hazrat Syed Buland Shah's Son Syed Abdul Ghafoor Shah shifted to tando abdul ghafoor shah jahaniyan taluka qasimabad, hyderabad.)
  7. Hazrat Syed Sher Muhammad Shah
  8. Hazrat Syed Fateh Din Shah

Hazrat Syed Fateh Din Shah's Son, Syed Qutub Ali Shah Jahaniyan was a great poet & saint. His shrine is at Tando Jahania.He had two sons Syed Roshan Ali Shah and Syed Sabit Ali Shah.Syed Roshan Ali Shah had a son, Syed Hadi Bux Shah. His son Noor Hussain Shah is the active successor of Syed Qutub Ali Shah at the moment at Tando Jahania, whereas Syed Sabit Ali Shah had a son, Syed Hussain Ali Shah who had three sons named;

Three of them are the well known great poets of Sindh.

Hazrat Syed Fateh Din Shah Jahaniyan is buried in the graveyard known as (wadee dargah), where their Father Hazrat Syed Weedhal Shah III is buried too. Later on it was famous as dargah Syed Dadan Shah Jahaniyan.

After Makhdoom Bahawal Shah Jahaniyan, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Makhdoom Syed Dadan Shah Jahaniyan, Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah (3rd), & the Present one is Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh Syed Zawar Hussain Shah Jahaniyan he is known as Syed Zawar Naqvi.[4]

Sachal Sarmast

Born 1739 CE
Daraza, Khairpur Mirs
Died 1829 CE
Era Classical
Region Sindhi Sufi Poet
School Islamic Sufism
Main interests lyric poetry
Notable ideas Sufi poetry, Sufi philosophy, and Sufi music

Sachal Sarmast (1739–1829) (Sindhi: سچلُ سرمستُ, Urdu: سچل سرمست) was a Sufi poet from Sindh during the Talpur era. He was born in Daraza near Ranipur, Sindh. His real name was Abdul Wahab Farouqi and "Sachal" was his nickname. He also used it in his own poetry. Sachu means truthful in Sindhi while Sarmast means mystic in Sindhi and Urdu. Sachal Sarmast literally means 'truthful mystic'.

He is regarded as 'Shair-e-Haft Zaban' (Poet of Seven Languages) due to his poetical works in Arabic, Sindhi, Saraiki, Punjabi, Urdu, Persian and Balochi to address the wider audience in these languages. He spread the message of love for humanity through poetry.

His poetical works are sung by local singers in Sindhi and Saraiki. His shrine is in the village of Daraza near ranipur, Khairpur District, Pakistan.

[edit] Poetry of Sachal Sarmast

The brave speak the truth
Let others like it or not;
For the talk of false friendship we care not.

Sachal Sarmast was an ardent follower of Wahdat-ul-Wujood (unity of existence), an Islamic Philosophy synonymous with Hamah Oost (all from One). Sachal says (translation by Gul Agha):

There is no other Beloved,
There is only what I see everyday!
I was sitting by the roadside,
When the path became clear to me;
In the palace the Beloved I saw,
a glimpse the Beauty gave;
Through the window was the vision,
a glimpse the Beauty saw;
Take care of the ignorant;
Our bond was made for a reason.
I truly recognized the Lord,
My companion He sure became;
'He is the Creator of all
and intrinsic to all',
All doubts in this perished;
With happiness shall I carry
Sisters, if your trust I have.
All the journeys, all the manifestations
The Dear One's own;
Friend 'Sachal' know this correctly,
Slumber has created illusions.
Sachal regarded love as the path to spirituality:
'Tis not in religion I believe
'Tis love I live in.
When love comes to you.
Say Amen!
'Tis not with the infidel
that love resides
Nor with the faithful.

Rather, Sachal advocated self-realization as the path to liberation. Sachal says (translation by Jethmal Parsram Gulrajani):

O friend! this is the only way to learn
the secrets of the path:
Follow not the road of another, however
virtuous he may be.
Rend the veil over thee,
Sindhi Kalam.
ko kee'n'an cha-we ko kee'n'an chawe,
aa-oon'n jo-ee aa'h-yaan so aa'h-yaan,
ko momin cha-we, ko kafar cha-we,
ko jaahil naalo zaahir cha-we,
ko shaa-e-r cha-we ko saahir cha-we,
aa-oon'n jo-ee aa'h-yaan so aa'h-yaan,
"what some say me what I am so I am,
some say illiterate openly, some say poet and some magician, I am what I am.
Searcher expose thy being.

[edit] Books on Sachal

  • Sachal's first compendium of poetry, together with his biography, philosophy, interpretation of the musical modes, and glossary:

Sachal jo Risalo by Agha Sufi

  • Study of Mysticism in Darazi:

School of Sufi Thought:

Author: Dr.Sakhi Qabool Muhammad Faruqi: -Sajjada Nashin.: Publisher: Darazi Publications:

  • Priceless Pearls Picked from Wonderous Waters of Wisdom:

Author: Dr.Sakhi Qabool Muhammad Faruqi - Sajjada Nashin.:

  • SachalSarmast:

Edited by:Tanveer Abbasi: Publisher: Sachal Chair:

  • SachalJo Kalam urf Aashiqi Ilham (Sindhi):

Publisher: Sachal Chair:

  • Muntakhab alam Sachal Sarmast (Urdu):

Publisher: Sachal Chair:

  • Sachal Sarmast (Sindh):

Author - Jethmal Parsram : Publisher-Sachal Chair: (7)Sarmast(Sindhi) Arrangedby: Muhammad Ali Hadaad Publisher: Sachal Sarmast Yadgar Committee.

  • Sachal Sarmast Ja Talib (Sindhi):

Author - Dr.Nawaz Ali Shauq: Publisher-Sachal Chair:

Sakhi Sarwar
سخی سرور

Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Dera Ghazi Khan District
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 â€¢ Summer (DST) +6 (UTC)

Sakhi Sarwar(Urdu, Saraiki, Punjabi: سخی سرور) is a town in Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. It is named after a Muslim Sufi saint Hazrat Syed Ahmad Sultan, also known as Sakhi Sarwar.

[edit] Hazrat Sakhi Sarwar Syed Ahmed Sultan

Syed Ahmad Sultan (Urdu, Saraiki, Punjabi: سیداحمدسلطان), also known as Sakhi Sarwar, Lakh Data, Nigah wala Pir and Lalan Wali Sarkar, was the son of Hazrat Syed Zain ul Abiden, who migrated from Baghdad and settled in Shahkot, near Multan in 1126 A.D (unconfirmed). Which is now called Sarwar Shahkot.The Holy shrine of Hazrat Zainul Abiden is in Sarwar Shahkot with the tomb of his second wife Hazrat Bibi Aysha, the mother of Hazrat Sakhi Sarwar and Abdul Ghani . His first wife is Bibi Aimna, the mother of Hazrat Sultan Qaisar(Tomb in Bukhara), Hazrat Syed Mahmood(Tomb in Sarwar Shahkot), Hazrat Syed Sairra (Tomb in Bukhara).[1] He studied from Syed Muhammad Ishaq, known as Miran Badshah who came from Iran and settled in Lahore during the time of the Tughlaq dynasty and is buried in the courtyard of Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore. Syed Ahmed later went to Dhaunkal, Wazirabad.

[edit] Tomb of Sakhi Sarwar

The tomb of Hazrat Sakhi Sarwar was built in the 13th century in Sulaiman Mountains, 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Dera Ghazi Khan city. It is located in a small village named Muqam. Later, Mughal king Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur amended his tomb. It is a unique building of Mughal architecture. Thousands of people from all over the Subcontinent come here on the Annual Celebrations of Birth of Sakhi Sarwar in March every year.

Sangh Mela, is a Vaisakhi fair during March and April, is celebrated in Sakhi Sarwar by people coming from Jhang and Faisalabad since centuries. This festival is celebrated by Hindus and Muslims especially at the time of wheat harvesting and at some places it is called as Basant. Throughout history, a large number of followers coming from different religions became the followers of Sakhi Sarwar. Max Arthur Macauliffe, a colonial office appointed in Punjab, observed in 1875 that not only Muslims but Hindus also visited the shrines during the [urs]. In the 1911 census of India, 79,085 Sikhs reported to be the follower of Sakhi Sarwar.[2] The annual Dhaunkal fair, Jhanda fair in Peshawar and Kadmon fair in Anarkali, Lahore[3] are also connected with Sakhi Sarwar.[4] Many villages in Punjab, India have shrines of Sakhi Sarwar who is more popularly referred to as Lakha Data Pir.[5]

[edit] Incidents

In nearby Dera Ghazi Khan, at the annual festival of Sakhi Sarwar Shrine on 3 April 2011, a twin suicide attack left 42 dead and almost a hundred injured.[6]

Khawaja Shah Muhammad Suleman Taunsvi

Religion Islam
Other name(s) Peer Pathan

Personal

Born 1770 CE
Darug Town, Baluchistan, Pakistan
Died 1850 CE
Taunsa Shareef, Punjab, Pakistan

Senior posting

Based in Taunsa Shareef, Punjab, Pakistan
Period in office Late 18th century and early 19th century

Muhammad Suleman Taunsvi (Peer Pathan)[clarification needed] (1184A.H/1770CE - 1267A.H/1850CE) was a Sufi saint born to the Jafar Pakhtun tribe of Darug, Loralai District, Balochistan province, in what is now Pakistan. His dargah (shrine or tomb) lies in Tehsil Taunsa of district Dera Ghazi Khan of Punjab province in Pakistan. Taunsa Sharif is located on the Karachi-Peshawar Indus High way near and the headworks on the Indus River called Taunsa Barrage. His urs (annual death anniversary) is celebrated at his shrine every year from (5-7) Safar al-Muzaffar, second month of Islamic Calendar.

Tomb of Muhammad Suleman Taunsvi

[edit] Silsila

  1. Muhammad
  2. Ali ibn Abu Talib
  3. Hasan Basri
  4. Abdul Wahid bin Zaid
  5. Fuzeel Ibn-e-Ayaaz
  6. Sultan Ibrahim Adham
  7. Sadeed-ud-din
  8. Ameen-ud-din
  9. Mumshaad
  10. Abi Ishaq Shami Chishti
  11. Syed Abi Ahmad Abdal Chishti
  12. Syed Abi Muhammad Chishti
  13. Syed Nasir-ud-din Chishti
  14. Syed Qutb-ud-din Maudud Chishti
  15. Makhdum Haji Sharif
  16. Usman Harooni
  17. Syed Moin-ud-din Chishti of Ajmer Sharif
  18. Syed Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki
  19. Baba Fareed-ud-din Masud Ganjshakar
  20. Syed Nizaam-ud-din Awlia
  21. Naseer-ud-din Charagh-e-Delhi
  22. Kamaal-ud-din
  23. Siraaj-ud-din
  24. Ilm-ud-din

Peer Pathan Shrine
  1. Mehmood Rajan
  2. Jamaal-ud-din Juman
  3. Jamaal-ud-din Hasan Muhammad Nuri
  4. Qutb Shams-ud-din Muhammad
  5. Muhammad
  6. Kaleem Ullah Jahanabadi
  7. Nizaam-ud-din Aurongabadi
  8. Fakhr-ud-din
  9. Nur Muhammad Mahaarvi
  10. Shah Suleman Taunsvi
  11. Khwaja Allah Bux Taunsvi
  12. Khwaja Hafiz Musa Taunsvi
  13. Khwaja Hamid Taunsvi (died in 1932)
  14. Khwaja Hafiz Sadid ud Din Taunsvi (died 1959-60)
  15. Khwaja Khan Muhammad Taunsvi(died in May 1979)
  16. Khwaja ATTA ULLAH KHAN Taunsvi

Baha-ud-din Zakariya

Religion Islam, specifically the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order
Personal
Born around 1170
Kot Kehror (Karor Lal Eason), Layah.
Died 1267
Multan
Senior posting
Based in Multan
Title Hadrat, Sheikh (Ghous-ul-Aalamin)
Period in office 12th/13th century
Predecessor Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Successor Various, including lal Shahbaz Qalander, Fakhr ud din Iraqi, Jalal ad-Din Muḥammad Rumi and Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari

Baha-ud-din Zakariya (Persian: بہاؤ الدین زکریا‎) (1170-1267) was a Sufi of Suhrawardiyya order (tariqa). His full name was Al-Sheikh Al-Kabir Sheikh-ul-Islam Baha-ud-Din Abu Muhammad Zakaria Al-Qureshi. Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya known as Bahawal Haq was born at Kot Kehror (Karor Lal Eason), a town of the Layyah District near Multan, Punjab, Pakistan, around 1170. His grandfather Shah Kamaluddin Ali Shah Qureshi arrived in Multan from Mecca en route to Khwarezm where he stayed for a short while. In Tariqat he was the disciple of renowned Sufi master Shaikh Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi who awarded him Khilafat only after 17 days of stay at his Khanqah in Baghdad. For fifteen years he went from place to place to preach Islam and after his wanderings Bahawal Haq settled in Multan in 1222.

[edit] His Shrine

Coordinates

30°12′02″N 71°28′35″E / 30.20056°N 71.47639°E / 30.20056; 71.47639 Baha-ud-din Zakariya died in 1268 and his mausoleum, Darbar Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya, is located at Multan. The mausoleum is a square of 51 ft 9 in (15.77 m), measured internally. Above this is an octagon, about half the height of the square, which is surmounted by a hemispherical dome. The mausoleum was almost completely ruined during the siege of 1848 by the British, but was soon afterward restored by the Muslims.[1]

[edit] Descendents

Baha-ud-din Zakariya had seven sons who gained fame in their own right as great Sufis - Shaykh Sadruddin Arif, Shaykh Burhanuddin, Shaykh Ziauddin, Shaykh Alauddin, Shaykh Qudrat-ud-din, Shaykh Shahab-ud-din, and Shaykh Shams-ud-din. Shaykh Sadruddin Arif's son was the famous Sufi Shaykh Abul Fath Ruknuddin, also known as Shah Rukn-e-Alam. His progeny dispersed all over India during the coming centuries and produced many famous people in all walks of life and scholarship. His descendants are found in Multan,Gujrat, Morejhang Distt.Chakwal, Pir Khara Sharif Distt.Jhelum, Bhera, Attock (Pourmiana), Lahore, pail district Khushab, Delhi, Meerut, Allahabad and .

Makhdoom Shah Mehmood Qureshi is the current Sajjada Nashin of Darbar Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya[2]

[edit] Genealogy

He was a direct descendant of the first Caliph of Islam Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.

[edit] Memorandum

[edit] Sufi order

He belongs to the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order, which is known in the Mamluk Sultanate of India. He was one of the disciples of Sheikh ul-Sheiyukh Shahabuddin Suhrawarthy. After wandering for fifteen years he eventually came to Multan in 1222 and settled there. Multan had come to be known as "Baghdad of the East" and is mentioned in the following couplet of Bahaul Haq in Persian :

Faqir Qadir Bux Bedil

فقير قادر بخش بيدل

Born 1814 ( 1230 A.H.)
Rohri, Sindh Pakistan
Died January 15, 1873 (16 Zi'Qad 1289 A.H.)
Rohri
Honored in Islam, Hinduism
Influences Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sachal Sarmast
Influenced Bekas
Tradition/Genre Poetry, Prose

Faqir Qadir Bux Bedil( 1814–1873)(Sindhi: فقير قادر بخش بيدل ) better known by his nom de plume Bedil (one bereft of heart), was a Sufi Poet and scholar of great stature.After Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and Sachal Sarmast other two stars that shone on the firmament of Sindhi poetry and who could measure up to them in excellence, were the father and son – Bedil and Bekas. They wrote poetry both in Sindhi and Persian. Bedil was well versed in a number of languages, Sindhi, Saraiki, Persian, Urdu, Arabic and Hindi. He has written poetry in Sindhi, Saraiki, Urdu, Persian and even in Hindi.

[edit] Early life

Bedil was born to a very pious family of Rohri. His father Khalifo Muhammad Mohsun was a disciple of Sayed Mir Janullah Shah Rizwi who himself was a great saint of his time, highly venerated and was chief of forty cardinals of Sufi Shah Inayat Shaheed of Jhok Shareef. Thus Bedil was brought up in such a enlightened environment under the guidance of Mir Sahib himself.On his birth he was named Abdul Qadir but he preferred to be called Qadir Bux. He was a staunch Muslim who moulded his life strictly according to the laws of Shariah. He was very simple and frugal in his style of living and gave away whatever he received, to the needy.He followed the path of Ishqu Majazi (Platonic love) to attain the heights of Ishqu Haqiqi (spiritual love) as dictated by Mystic doctrine.He was a devotee of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan also. Although he had deformity in one foot, yet he undertook long journeys to Sehwan to pay his homage to the Saint’s Shrine. He went to Jhok Sharif to pay homage to shrine of Sufi Shah Inayat Shaheed and also to Daraza, to visit the shrine of Sachal Sarmast.

[edit] Works

 
A rare manuscript of Besarnama "The without-head-book" by Bedil,a long Mathnavi attributed to Shah Inayat Shaheed reciting during his head's journey to Delhi from Thatta.

Bedil was the most voluminous poet of Sindh, even more so than Shah Latif, with 10 books of poetry to his credit. Most of his poems were written in Persian, Arabic and Urdu, and his famous Sindhi works were Wahdat Namo (Book of Union) and Surood Namo (Book of Melody). He compiled as many as 23 books on prose and poetry written in Persian, Sindhi and Urdu more known being:

  • Masanavi Riyaz Alfugr
  • Diwan-e-Sulook-ul-Talbin
  • Diwan Minhaj-ul-Haquiqat-a
  • Rumuz al Qadri
  • Masanavi Nahr ul Bahr
  • Punj Gunj
  • Diwn Musbah al Tariqat
  • Wahadat Namo
  • Sarud Namo
  • Diwan e Bedil

Renowned Scholar Dr. Nabi Bux Khan Baloch has termed Fakir Qadir Bux Bedil as last Sufi saint who wrote on Tasawuf and history of Sindh and taught mysticism through his poetry. 'Wahadat Namo' of Bedil is a thought provoking work through which Bedil Fakir has presented the essence of Sufism (mysticism). Bedil was the first scholar who wrote history of Jhok Shraif and the sacrifice of Sufi Shah Inayat Shaheed of Sindh.[1]

[edit] Poetry

Among his poetical compositions we have his famous elegy, written on the death of Sachal Sarmast immortalizing the master and incidentally himself too. Some of the verses from this elegy are:

“Wonderful was the magic of love in Daraza , my friend Sachu was there, the intoxicated seeker and the Gnostic. Heavy was the shower of rain, of yearning of that hero. The pangs of separation were there, visible and invisible. Inherited he was, truly, with the rapture of oneness. Verily he was another Mansur, love itself incarnate. He was Attar the perfumer himself in fervour and sentiment. Commander he stood in the ranks of those given to love. Bedil haunts the door of the donor for the gift of his ardour. About himself he proclaims in the mood and style of Sachal; “I am what I am. Put on the various garments, and again divert myself of them�.

[edit] Melo

His annual Melo or Urs (death anniversary celebration) is held every year at his shrine (Dargah)in Rohri on the 16 Dhu al-Qi'dah - the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar where thousands of his Murids (disciples) throng every day to pay the homage to the great saint poet – Abdul Qadir by birth and Qadir Bux by his choice.

Rukn-e-Alam

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Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukn-e-Alam in Multan

Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fath (1251–1335) commonly known by the title Rukn-e-Alam (pillar of the world) commonly called Shah Rukne Alam was among the eminent Sufi saints from Multan, Pakistan.

The Shaikh was the son of Pir Sadar-Al-Din Arif born at Multan on Friday, the 9th of Ramadan 649 Hijri (26 November 1251).[1] He was the grandson and successor of Shaikh Baha-Ud-Din Zakariya.

Shaikh Rukn-e-Alam (Rukn-al-Din) died on Friday, the 7th of Jumada al-awwal 735 Hijri (3 January 1335). He was buried in the mausoleum of his grandfather, according to his own will. After sometime, however, his coffin was transferred to the present mausoleum. Upon his death the Sheikh conferred his spiritual succession to Sheikh Hamid ud Din al Hakim, buried at Mau Mubarak in Rahim Yar Khan, who was his Khalifa e Awal and was married to his aunt, the daughter of Sheikh Baha ud Din Zikriya.

The saint is still revered today and his tomb is the focus of the pilgrimage of over 100,000 pilgrims from all over South Asia who visit and commemorate his memory.[2] Makhdoom Shahabuddin is the current Sajjada Nashin and custodian of the Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam.[3]

[edit] Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam

Coordinates:

30°11′56″N 71°28′17″E / 30.19889°N 71.47139°E / 30.19889; 71.47139

Rukn-e-Alam Tomb taken by William Henry Baker in 1865
Another view of Mausoleum

The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam was built between 1320 and 1324, is an unmatched pre-Moghul masterpiece. The Mausoleum of Rukn-i-Alam could possibly be considered as the glory of Multan.

From whichever side the city is approached, the most prominent thing that can be seen from miles all around is a huge dome. This dome is the Shrine of the saint. The tomb is located on the southwest side of the Fort premises. This elegant building is an octagon, 51 feet 9 inches in diameter internally, with walls 41 feet 4 inches high and 13 feet 3 inches thick, supported at the angles by sloping towers. Over this is a smaller octagon 25 feet 8 inches, on the exterior side, and 26 feet 10 inches high, leaving a narrow passage all round the top of the lower storey for the Moazzan, or public caller to prayers. The whole is surmounted by a hemispherical dome of 58 feet external diameter. The total height of the building, including a plinth of 3 feet, is 100 feet. As it stands on the high ground, the total height above the road level is 150 feet.[4]

Besides its religious importance, the mausoleum is also of considerable archaeological value as its dome is reputed to be the second largest in the world. The mausoleum is built entirely of red brick, bounded with beams of shisham wood, which have now turned black after so many centuries. The whole of the exterior is elaborately ornamented with glazed tile panels, string-courses and battlements. Colors used are dark blue, azure, and white, contrasted with the deep red of the finely polished bricks.

The tomb was said to have been built by Ghias-ud-Din Tughlak (r. 1320-1325) for himself during the days of his governorship of Depalpur, between 1320 and 1324 AD, but was given by his son, Muhammad bin Tughluq to the descendents of Shah Rukn-e-Alam for the latter’s burial in 1330.

The mausoleum of Rukn-e-Alam has been admired by not only the travelers and chroniclers but also by the art-historians and archaeologist who wrote the architectural history of the subcontinent.

In the 1970s the mausoleum was thoroughly repaired and renovated by the Auqaf Department of the Punjab Government. The entire glittering glazed interior is the result of new tiles and brickwork done by the Kashigars of Multan.[1]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b Historic Multan Government of Pakistan
  2. ^ Over 100,000 pilgrims as visitors UNESCO World Heritage
  3. ^ Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam "Multan City Online"
  4. ^ Dimensions of the Mausoleum Multancity.com

Sultan Bahu
سلطان باہو

Ethnicity Awan (Pakistan)
Known for Sufism, Poetry, Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order
Title Bahu(with God) and Fanna fe Allah (Annihilation in God)
Religion Islam

Sultan Bahu (Punjabi: سلطان باہو) (ca 1628 – 1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order.

Sultan Bahu belonged to the Awan tribe, and was born in Anga, Soon Valley, Sakesar (Vadi-e-Soon Sakesar). Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia, Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer, with more than forty books on Sufism attributed to him. Most of His books are in Persian. However, most of his books deal with specialised subjects related to Islam and Islamic mysticism; it is his Punjabi poetry that had popular appeal and made him a household name in the region. His verses are sung in many genres of Sufi music, including qawwali and kafi. Tradition has established a unique style of singing his couplets.

Sultan Bahu is a direct descendant from Ali, (cousin of Muhammad, husband of Fatima and father of Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali). Traditionally, he is Hashimi, and belongs to the Awan tribe. Historically the tribe trace their descent to Ameer Shah, son of Qutub Shah whose family lineage is traced back to Ali

The mausoleum of Sultan Bahu is located in Garh Maharaja, Punjab, Pakistan. It was originally built on his grave. However, the mausoleum subsequently had to be moved twice when the Chenab River changed its course. It is a popular and frequently-visited Sufi shrine, and the annual Urs festival commemorating his death is celebrated with great fervour. The Urs festival is held during the month of Muharram. Every year on the 9th of Muharram (Islamic calendar month) a ghusal is also conducted under the supervision of Muhammad Najeeb Sultan (Sajjada Nasheen (Chair-holder) of the Sultan Bahu shrine), in which all descendants of Sultan Bahu wash his shrine with pure rose water.

[edit] Spiritual Genealogy / Tareeqa

Sultan Bahu belonged to the Qadiri Sufi order, and later initiated his own offshoot, Sarwari Qadiri.

Sultan Bahu refers to Muhiyuddin Abdul Qadir Gilani as his spiritual Master in a number of his books and poetry, but it is obvious that this relationship must have existed purely in the spiritual domain, as Abdul Qadir Gilani died before the birth of Sultan Bahu. However, a majority of Sufi orders and saints maintain that Abdul Qadir Gilani has a special role in the mystic world and thus all orders and saints are always indebted to him directly or indirectly in some way.

Sultan Bahu's education began at the feet of his mother, Mai Rasti, who was herself a saintly woman, and has her own Mausoleum in Shorkot, Punjab, Pakistan. She told him to seek spiritual guidance from a wali (friend of GOD). After some time, he moved to Delhi for further 'polishing' under the guidance of Sheikh Abdul Rehman al Qadari. Soon Sheikh Abdul Rehman al Qadari felt that he can not add anything to Sultan Bahu's knowledge as Sultan Bahu already knew more than Sheikh Abdul Rehman al Qadari. This did not take long, after which Sultan Bahu returned to his own, familiar surroundings.

 
Shrine of Sultan Bahu

The complete spiritual lineage (Silsila) of Sultan Bahu is as follows:

[edit] Genealogy

Sultan Bahu was of the progeny of Ali, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His family is thus Hashemi, and his tribe Awan. The Awan tribe trace their ancestry to Ameer Shah, son of Qutub Shah.

After the incident of Karbala, the household of Muhammad had to migrate to other lands. Many of his descendants who lived in Egypt and nearby lands departed for Turkistan and Iran due to persecution at the hands of Hujjaj bin Yusuf.

As time went by, they resettled in places such as Bukhara and Hamadan in Turkistan, and Baghdad in Iraq. Some migrated to Khurasan and others to Herat in the mountainous regions of present day Afghanistan. The ancestors of Sultan Bahu migrated and settled in South Asia, and the father of Sultan Bahu, Bazid Muhammed, became an important titleholder at the court of the Mughal emperors of South Asia.

The complete genealogy of Sultan Bahu is as follows:

Sultan Bahu, Bazid Muhammed, Fatah Muhammed, Alla-Radatta, Muhammed Tameem, Muhammed Mannan, Mogila, Peera, Muhammed Sughra, Muhammed Noor, Sulla, Muhammed Baharie, Muhammed Jayoon, Muhammed Hargun, Noor Shah, Ameer Shah, Qutub Shah, Emmaan Shah, Husein Shah, Firoze Shah, Mahmud Shah, Fartak Shah, Nawaab Shah, Darrab Shah, Awhum Shah, Abeeq Shah, Ahmed Shah, Ameer Zubeir,Abbas ibne Ali, Caliph Ali, Abu Talib, Abul Mutallib (Grandfather of Muhammad), *Hashim, *Abdul Munaf

[edit] Literary works

The actual number of books written by Sultan Bahu is not certain. According to tradition, he is supposed to have authored over one hundred works and treatises. The following is a list of the important works of Sultan Bahu that still exist today, and can be traced back to him with credibility. Nurul Huda, Risala-e-Roohi, Aql Baidaar, Mahq-ul-Fuqar, Aurang-Shaahi, Jami-il-Asraar, Taufiq-Hedaayat, Kaleed Tauheed, Ainul Faqr, Shamsul Arifeen, Magzane Faiz, Ameerul Quonain, Asrare Qaderi, Kaleed Jannat, Muhqamul Fuqar, Majaalis-tun Nabi, Muftahul Arifeen, Hujjatul Asraar, Jannatul Firdaus, Kash-ful Asraar, Risaala Ruhi Shareef, Abayat-e-Bahu (poetry), Muhabbatul Asraar, Ganjul Asraar, Dewaan Bahu, Panj Ganj, Fazlul Laqa, Jhook Sultany, Ameerul Mumineen

Of the above, Nurul Huda (Light of Guidance) and Risala-e-Roohi (Book of Soul) are the most popular, along with the poetry collection Abyat-e-Bahu.

Sultan Bahu wrote in his book Risala-e-Roohi:

He is playing the game of love by Himself
He Himself is the sight
He Himself is the seer
He Himself is the seen

He Himself is Love
Shrine of Sultan Bahu near Jhang, Pakistan.

He Himself is the lover
He Himself is the beloved

if you lift the veil
(you will see) that in reality, there is only One
Duality is only owing to your squint eyes

I say this, the author of this book
who resides in the sanctuary of His beauty (Jamal)
and grandeur (Jalal)

(I am) the 'Ha' of Howiyet
completely absorbed in witnessing the absolute Being
gifted by the Witnessed Omnipresence
(gifted by) the Worshipped One
(I am he) who swings in the cradle of
praise me, how great is my splendour
who being at the station of highest respect
wears the crown of Knowledge of God,
and the crown of His Oneness,
and on whose shoulders
is the robe of reconciliation and purification

(who is at the station of)
'You are me and I am you'

(who was given) the title of 'from the truth'
(by) the Absolute Truth

the secret of the Entity of 'Hu' (Him)
Faqeer Bahu (May his secret be sanctified)
known as Awan resident of the vicinity of Shorekote
may Allah safeguard him from mischief and oppression[1]

Completely absorbed in the 'Ha' of 'Howiyet'
the author of this book states that
when truly divine grace and favour
was bestowed upon me
which I received as a blessing in the truest sense
then He, who is stationed
at the highest, holiest stations of divine light (noor)
The prophet Muhammad
instructed me to guide the people

may they be Muslims,
may they be non-believers,
may they be the fortunate,
may they be the unfortunate ones,
may they be destined to find the truth,
may they be destined to be doomed,
may they be living,
may they be deceased,

Because from his holy tongue,
which emanates the secrets
(The prophet has called me)
Mustafa the second and Mujtaba of the last days[2]